An estimated 1.3 billion people – or 1 in 6 persons – experience significant disability, 80% of whom live in low-income and middle-income countries. This figure is rising due to population ageing and escalating prevalence and complexity of poverty-related, non-communicable and communicable diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 5.8% of children and adolescents have a disability, rising to 34.4% among older people. Across all age groups, more women experience disabilities than men (18% compared with 14.2%). Universal Health Coverage can only be achieved if health inequities experienced by persons with disabilities and older people are fully addressed. This briefing provides a background on why advancing Universal Health Coverage is crucial, and provides key actions needed to advance health equity for persons with disabilities of all ages.